첫째, 단순하지만 확실한 신호를 찾아내라.
둘째, 보상을 분명하게 제시하라.

적절한 신호와 보상을 찾아내면 마법의 지팡이를 손에 쥔 것과 같다.
펩소던트를 예로 들어 보자. 홉킨스는 치태라는 신호와 아름다운 치아라는 보상을 찾아냈다. 그것만으로 홉킨스는 수많은 사람이 양치질로 일상의 관례로 받아들이도록 설득해 냈다. 오늘날에도 홉킨스의 법은 마케팅 교과서의 한 항목을 차지하고, 수많은 광고 회사에서 금과옥조로 여기고 있다.


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과학자들의 연구에 따르면 습관이 형성되는 이유는 우리 뇌가 활동을절약할 방법을 끊임없이 찾기 때문이다. 어떤 자극도 주지 않고 가만히내버려 두면 뇌는 일상적으로 반복되는 거의 모든 일을 무차별적으로습관으로 전환시키려고 할 것이다. 습관이 뇌에게 휴식할 시간을 주기때문이다.


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The revenge of paper shows that analog technology can excel at specific tasks and uses on a very practical level, especially when compared to digital technology. While paper use may have shrunk in certain areas since the introduction of digital communications, in other uses and purposes, paper‘s emotional, functional, and economic value has increased. Paper may be used less, but where it is growing, paper is worth more.


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Not just any lunch will do, however. The most powerful lunch breaks have two key ingredients—autonomy and detachment.

Autonomy-exercising some control over what you do, how you do it, when you do it, and whom you do it with—is critical for high performance, especially on complex tasks. But it‘s equally crucial when we take breaks from complex tasks. ˝The extent to which employees can determine how they utilize their lunch breaks may bejust as important as what employees do during their lunch,˝ says one set of researchers.

Naps, research shows, confer two key benefits:They improve cognitive performance and they boost mental and physical health.

While naps between thirty and ninety minutes can produce some long-term benefits, they come with steep costs. The ideal naps those that combine effectiveness with efficiency—are far shorter usually between ten and twenty minutes.


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As the researchers note, ˝A break causes an im-provement that is larger than the hourly deterioration.˝That is, scores go down after noon. But scores go up by a higher amount after breaks.

Short breaks from a task can prevent habituation, help us maintain focus, and reactivate our commitment to a goal. And frequent short breaks are more effective than occasional ones.

researchers suggest that organizations ˝introduce physically active breaks during the workday routine.˝Regular short walking breaks in the workplace also increase motivation and concentration and enhance creativity.

Talking with coworkers about something other than work—are more effective at reducing stress and improving than either cognitive breaks (answering e-mail) or nutrition breaks(getting a snack).

Nature breaks may replenish us the most. -Being close to trees, plants, rivers, and streams is a powerful mental restorative, one whose potency most of us don‘t appreciate.


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